Don't worry, it's much simpler than I expressed it, I'm just a little busy at the moment - sorry for that!

Convergents or semiconvergents, for example, can be easily determined when using a

Stern-Brocot tree, or Erv Wilson's re-invention from it, the

Scale-Tree, without any higher knowledge of math required. And "g = x/m is rational" simply means that g is the x-step interval in the tuning that divides the period into m steps. So if P represents the octave, and g = 7/12, then g is the 7-step interval in 12-EDO (the 700 cent fifth). The (semi-)convergents for g = 7/12 are 1/2, 2/3, 3/5 and 4/7, so its MOS have 2, 3, 5, 7 and m - 1 = 11 tones.

I'll add more explanations later...